first_imgKenya Airways Limited ( listed on the Nairobi Securities Exchange under the Transport sector has released it’s 2017 abridged results.For more information about Kenya Airways Limited ( reports, abridged reports, interim earnings results and earnings presentations, visit the Kenya Airways Limited ( company page on AfricanFinancials.Document: Kenya Airways Limited (  2017 abridged results.Company ProfileKenya Airways Limited is the flag carrier airline of Kenya operating domestic, regional and international flights to destinations in Africa, the Middle East, Asia and Europe. The company was founded in 1977 after the dissolution of East African Airways and was wholly-owned by the government of Kenya until 1995 after which it was privatised. Kenya Airways is a public-private partnership where the largest shareholder is the government of Kenya (48.9%). Kenya Airways wholly-owns Jambojet, a low-cost carrier which was created in 2013; and African Cargo Handling Limited. Companies partly owned by Kenya Airways include Kenya Airfreight Handling Limited (51%) which handles perishable goods cargo; and Precision Air (41.23%) which is a Tanzanian carrier operation. Kenya Airways head office is in Nairobi, Kenya with its main operations based in Jomo Kenyatta International Airport. Kenya Airways Limited is listed on the Nairobi Securities Exchangelast_img read more

first_imgForget buy-to-let! I’d invest £20k in FTSE 100 stocks today to get rich and retire early See all posts by Peter Stephens Renowned stock-picker Mark Rogers and his analyst team at The Motley Fool UK have named 6 shares that they believe UK investors should consider buying NOW.So if you’re looking for more stock ideas to try and best position your portfolio today, then it might be a good day for you. Because we’re offering a full 33% off your first year of membership to our flagship share-tipping service, backed by our ‘no quibbles’ 30-day subscription fee refund guarantee. Peter Stephens has no position in any of the shares mentioned. The Motley Fool UK has no position in any of the shares mentioned. Views expressed on the companies mentioned in this article are those of the writer and therefore may differ from the official recommendations we make in our subscription services such as Share Advisor, Hidden Winners and Pro. Here at The Motley Fool we believe that considering a diverse range of insights makes us better investors. Simply click below to discover how you can take advantage of this. I would like to receive emails from you about product information and offers from The Fool and its business partners. Each of these emails will provide a link to unsubscribe from future emails. More information about how The Fool collects, stores, and handles personal data is available in its Privacy Statement. Peter Stephens | Monday, 9th March, 2020 | More on: ^FTSE “This Stock Could Be Like Buying Amazon in 1997”center_img Our 6 ‘Best Buys Now’ Shares Image source: Getty Images Click here to claim your copy now — and we’ll tell you the name of this Top US Share… free of charge! Enter Your Email Address I’m sure you’ll agree that’s quite the statement from Motley Fool Co-Founder Tom Gardner.But since our US analyst team first recommended shares in this unique tech stock back in 2016, the value has soared.What’s more, we firmly believe there’s still plenty of upside in its future. In fact, even throughout the current coronavirus crisis, its performance has been beating Wall St expectations.And right now, we’re giving you a chance to discover exactly what has got our analysts all fired up about this niche industry phenomenon, in our FREE special report, A Top US Share From The Motley Fool. Many investors may view the FTSE 100’s recent fall as a reason to become increasingly cautious about its prospects. After all, further declines in its price level could be ahead as coronavirus impacts negatively on the world economy.As such, they may be tempted to focus their capital on buy-to-let properties due to them potentially offering less volatility.5G is here – and shares of this ‘sleeping giant’ could be a great way for you to potentially profit!According to one leading industry firm, the 5G boom could create a global industry worth US$12.3 TRILLION out of thin air…And if you click here we’ll show you something that could be key to unlocking 5G’s full potential…However, the FTSE 100’s valuation suggests that now could be an opportune moment to buy large-cap shares. Long-term investors may benefit from the index’s recovery potential, with it having the capacity to improve your retirement prospects to a greater extent than undertaking a buy-to-let investment.Uncertain outlookThe FTSE 100 could realistically fall in the near term. As such, buying today carries the risk of experiencing paper losses.However, the prospects for UK house prices are also highly uncertain. At the present time they are close to a record high when compared to average incomes. This means that their affordability may be low in many parts of the UK, with them being dependent on factors such as continued low interest rates and government policies such as Help to Buy.Neither low interest rates nor Help to Buy are likely to last in perpetuity. Therefore, the capacity for house prices to move significantly higher may be somewhat limited. This may mean that the profits available on buy-to-let investments are less attractive than many would-be property investors currently realise.Recovery potentialBuying any high-quality asset while it offers good value for money can increase your chances of making a profit in the long run. As such, now could be the right time to buy FTSE 100 shares while many of them trade on valuations that are lower than their historic averages. The index itself has a dividend yield in excess of 5%, which is close to its record high. This suggests that large-cap shares offer significantly greater capital growth potential than property.Furthermore, the FTSE 100 has a strong track record of delivering successful recoveries from its difficult periods. It has overcome two bear markets in the past 20 years, namely the tech bubble and global financial crisis, to post record highs. Although it may take time to do likewise following the coronavirus outbreak, a turnaround seems likely over the coming years.RisksAs mentioned, there is a risk that the FTSE 100 index will move lower in the short run. This risk cannot be diversified away through buying multiple stocks. However, investors who have a long time horizon are likely to have sufficient time for their investments to recover from short-term corrections and even bear markets.Therefore, if you have many years left until you plan to retire, an investment in FTSE 100 shares could be a logical move. It may outperform a buy-to-let investment and increase your chances of retiring early.last_img read more

first_img Area:  550 m² Year Completion year of this architecture project 2006 CopyAbout this officeECDMOfficeFollow#TagsProjectsBuilt ProjectsSelected ProjectsResidential ArchitectureSocial HousingParisHousingFrancePublished on March 28, 2009Cite: “Louis Blanc Social Housing / ECDM” 28 Mar 2009. ArchDaily. Accessed 12 Jun 2021. ISSN 0719-8884Read commentsBrowse the CatalogPartitionsSkyfoldVertically Folding Operable Walls – Classic™ SeriesVinyl Walls3MArchitectural Finishes DI-NOC in Ned Ludd Public HouseShower ColumnshansgroheOverhead ShowersWindowsKalwall®Kalwall® in Featherstone High SchoolLightsLouis PoulsenLamps – LP Slim BoxSealantsEffisusBi-adhesive Tape – 2BondDSConcrete FloorsSikaIndustrial Floor CoatingsPlantersJakobGreen Walls – GreenKitUrban ApplicationsPunto DesignPunto Benches and Litter Bins in Public Space ImprovementsPaintKEIMMineral Paint for Concrete – KEIM Concretal®-WArmchairs / Couches / Futons / PoufsFreifrauArmchair High – MarlaAcousticBASWA acousticThermal-Acoustic System – BASWA CoreMore products »Read commentsSave世界上最受欢迎的建筑网站现已推出你的母语版本!想浏览ArchDaily中国吗?是否翻译成中文现有为你所在地区特制的网站?想浏览ArchDaily中国吗?Take me there »✖You’ve started following your first account!Did you know?You’ll now receive updates based on what you follow! Personalize your stream and start following your favorite authors, offices and users.Go to my stream Louis Blanc Social Housing / ECDM Text description provided by the architects. The construction of the housing project located 45 Louis Blanc Street in the 10th quarter of Paris is the result of a project launched in 1998 by the Paris city real-estate authority. The property developer was expected to take a piece of land measuring 550 m² and replace an abandoned squat there which had been slotted for demolition with a low-cost building proposing 13 apartments (program specifications), that adhered to the HQE (High Environmental Quality) standards still being determined at the time.Save this picture!The project is sculpted like a piece of a puzzle, responding exactly to the urban constrains and solicitations of the context. It proposes an unusual typology for the Parisian standards which frees the ground floor to propose on the ground level a landscaped parking, adequate with a small plot, above which 17 apartments seem to float. It ensures a chain reaction -> Minimization of the parking print (suppression of the ramp) -> optimization of the realization planning: minus 3 months -> Optimization of the budget: 15% -> Redefinition of the project economy -> and so on… Save this picture!The environmental attitude has systematically aimed to dissolve the technical and contextual subjections in the architecture of the building and manage maximum potentialities of the construction (Post and beam structure allowing any recomposition of the volumes, etc.)Save this picture!Project gallerySee allShow lessContainer Nation, a project by Group 41Articles11th International Bauhaus Colloquium as the highlight of Bauhaus Anniversary WeekArticlesProject locationAddress:Paris, FranceLocation to be used only as a reference. It could indicate city/country but not exact address. Share “COPY” CopySocial Housing•Paris, France Architects: ECDM Area Area of this architecture project ShareFacebookTwitterPinterestWhatsappMailOr Clipboard Projectscenter_img Save this picture!+ 27 Share France ArchDaily ShareFacebookTwitterPinterestWhatsappMailOr Clipboard “COPY” Year:  Louis Blanc Social Housing / ECDMSave this projectSaveLouis Blanc Social Housing / ECDM Social Housinglast_img read more

first_imgArchDaily Projects Year:  Haus Elise / Synn ArchitektenSave this projectSaveHaus Elise / Synn Architekten Haus Elise / Synn Architekten “COPY” Austria ShareFacebookTwitterPinterestWhatsappMailOr Clipboard Photographs CopyHouses•Vienna, Austria Architects: Synn Architekten Area Area of this architecture project ShareFacebookTwitterPinterestWhatsappMailOr Clipboard Area:  993 m² Year Completion year of this architecture project 2009 Houses “COPY” Photographs:  Manfred SeidlText description provided by the architects. The wish of the client, to give the young son a private, independent area, becomes the main topic of the design and organizes the arrangement of the rooms in the house. The three diversely proportioned structures are adapted in size and height to the different uses and accommodate the living areas, connected by a low “spine”, in which the side rooms and the kitchen as well as the stairs are located.Save this picture!© Manfred SeidlRecommended ProductsWoodLunawoodThermowood FacadesDoorsLinvisibileLinvisibile Curved Hinged Door | AlbaEnclosures / Double Skin FacadesAlucoilStructural Honeycomb Panels – LarcoreMetallicsKriskadecorMetal Fabric – Outdoor CladdingThe roofs of the structures are unequally pitched and also slope in different directions. Each structure offers room for one distinct area of life. The structure, which opens generously to the garden, harbours the living area with the connected kitchen and is the meeting point of the family. The children’s room is located in the structure closed to the street which opens to a small courtyard. The raised structure allows to let the master’s bedroom and the guest bedroom to float above the garden. The car as well as the building equipment are located below.Save this picture!© Manfred SeidlAll structures (with the exception of the equipment room and the spine, which are visually firmly connected to the earth) are raised from the adjacent level and thereby establish a clear boundary to the garden, because the house shall remain urban, surrounded by a garden as a lower lying area, which wants to be entered intentionally.Save this picture!© Manfred SeidlBy this arrangement the building integrates into the surrounding divided building development, established by suburban turn of the century villas and small apartment buildings of a more recent date. The living areas are all oriented to the garden, they are closed to the street by not having any windows there. Only the study above the garage is oriented to the street. In contrast to the surrounding buildings a restraint towards the public space, which is consistent with the wish of the clients to achieve privacy.Save this picture!© Manfred SeidlAll the windows in the cubes are guided over the corners and thereby compose generous and, most notably for the vertical glazing, interesting optical extensions of the rooms. From a lounge corner in the living room and from the master’s bedroom one can see directly to the stars. The spine is completely glazed on the narrow side and directs the view in the direction of the movement axis to the garden.Save this picture!© Manfred SeidlThe varying surface design of the flooring in the interior and of the façade supports the design idea. The fettled cubes clearly stand out from the base covered with anodized aluminium plates and the spine. The house is as a low energy house and is heated by a heat pump with three thermal ground probes. It is also completely equipped with panel heating.Save this picture!© Manfred SeidlProject gallerySee allShow lessFootbridge in Maribor / Arhitektura d.o.o.ArticlesKAT-Ohno / CheungvoglArticles Share Save this picture!© Manfred Seidl+ 24 Share CopyAbout this officeSynn ArchitektenOfficeFollow#TagsProjectsBuilt ProjectsSelected ProjectsResidential ArchitectureHousesDabasViennaHouses3D ModelingAustriaPublished on April 04, 2010Cite: “Haus Elise / Synn Architekten” 04 Apr 2010. ArchDaily. Accessed 12 Jun 2021. ISSN 0719-8884Read commentsBrowse the CatalogSinkshansgroheBathroom Mixers – Talis SVinyl Walls3MExterior Vinyl Finish – DI-NOC™ Solid ColorPartitionsSkyfoldRetractable Walls – Stepped & Sloped SpacesDining tablesZeitraumWood Table – TautBathroom AccessoriesBradley Corporation USARoll Towel Dispenser – Electronic TouchlessWoodLunawoodThermowood FacadesAluminium CompositesSculptformClick-on Battens in Victoria GardensMetal PanelsLongboard®Metal Ceilings – DauntlessWoodStructureCraftEngineering – Mass TimberPanels / Prefabricated AssembliesULMA Architectural SolutionsPerforated Facade PanelFiber Cements / CementsDuctal®Rainscreen Cladding Panels for Lightweight Facades in Apartment BlockBricksAcme BrickModular Size BrickMore products »Read commentsSave想阅读文章的中文版本吗?豪斯伊利斯住宅 / Synn Architekten是否翻译成中文现有为你所在地区特制的网站?想浏览ArchDaily中国吗?Take me there »✖You’ve started following your first account!Did you know?You’ll now receive updates based on what you follow! Personalize your stream and start following your favorite authors, offices and users.Go to my streamlast_img read more

first_imgCopyAbout this officeScalar ArchitectureOfficeFollowProductsWoodGlassSteel#TagsProjectsBuilt ProjectsSelected ProjectsResidential ArchitectureHousesUnited StatesPublished on March 24, 2018Cite: “Anker-Jordan Residence / Scalar Architecture” 24 Mar 2018. ArchDaily. Accessed 11 Jun 2021. ISSN 0719-8884Browse the CatalogPartitionsSkyfoldVertically Folding Operable Walls – Zenith® SeriesVinyl Walls3MExterior Vinyl Finish – DI-NOC™ StoneShowerhansgroheShowers – Croma SelectDoorsRaynorGarage Door – Advantage SeriesConcreteSika3D Concrete PrintingSignage / Display SystemsGoppionDisplay Case – Bre-ClassSkylightsVELUX CommercialModular Skylights in Atelier Zimmerlistrasse OfficeWindowsswissFineLineSliding Windows in Villa LakesideSuspension SystemsMetawellAluminum Panels for Smart CeilingsGlassDip-TechDigital Ceramic Printing in Roofs & CanopiesSound BoothsFrameryMeeting Pod – Framery Q – Flip n’ FoldWall / Ceiling LightsAsaf WeinbroomLighting – Linestra 110 BrassMore products »Save世界上最受欢迎的建筑网站现已推出你的母语版本!想浏览ArchDaily中国吗?是否翻译成中文现有为你所在地区特制的网站?想浏览ArchDaily中国吗?Take me there »✖You’ve started following your first account!Did you know?You’ll now receive updates based on what you follow! Personalize your stream and start following your favorite authors, offices and users.Go to my stream Civil: Area:  3000 ft² Year Completion year of this architecture project ShareFacebookTwitterPinterestWhatsappMailOr Clipboard Manufacturers: Benjamin Moore, Anatolia, Chick Lumber, Everlast Roofing, Kas-Kel Anker-Jordan Residence / Scalar ArchitectureSave this projectSaveAnker-Jordan Residence / Scalar Architecture Houses 2017 Anker-Jordan Residence / Scalar Architecture Year:  Reilly Tarantino Engineering United States CopyHouses•United States “COPY” ShareFacebookTwitterPinterestWhatsappMailOr Clipboard Photographs:  Imagen Subliminal Manufacturers Brands with products used in this architecture project Photographs Structural: Architects: Scalar Architecture Area Area of this architecture project ArchDaily Glen Builders, Paul Marks “COPY” HEB engineering inc Collaborators:Laura Hernandez Ramos, Min Ji Kim, Ben Prager, Cristina Marti Vilar, Fernando Cremades, Julia Castano, Lina Gao, Murilo Machado CandidoArchitect In Charge:Julio SalcedoCountry:United StatesMore SpecsLess SpecsSave this picture!© Imagen SubliminalRecommended ProductsWoodTechnowoodPergola SystemsFiber Cements / CementsDuctal®Ductal® Cladding Panels (EU)Fiber Cements / CementsApavisaTiles – Nanofusion 7.0WoodSculptformTimber Click-on BattensText description provided by the architects. Nestled in a peninsula on Ossipee Lake, New Hampshire, the 3000 sf cottage is formed by two conjoined prisms that provide an elegant and singular resolution to a wide range of desires and concerns. Among these concerns are passive climate responses, adaptability for multi-generational living, and deference towards the spectacular surrounds – including the lake, forests, and White Mountains range beyond.Save this picture!© Imagen SubliminalSave this picture!Site PlanSave this picture!© Imagen SubliminalThe cottage’s lakeside site is uniquely challenging. Beyond its climate, topography, and vegetation – all orientations offer distinct opportunities in need of reconciliation: there are northern views, sparse southern solar exposure, western summer and northwestern winter winds, and southern and eastern neighbors to shield from.  Save this picture!© Imagen SubliminalThe client family is invested both in the intermingling of the three generations, and the acknowledgment of the interdependent needs of all the generations. To this regard, the family favors the degree to which the spaces may be used as a gathering continuous sequence, whilst providing rather separate moments of isolation and play.Save this picture!© Imagen SubliminalSave this picture!Section 02Save this picture!© Imagen SubliminalUsing a process of adaptive computational design, the architect developed an elemental prism that maximizes interior volume while affording a high passive environmental efficiency and minimum impact on the site. The folded roof simultaneously negotiates the southern exposure, the northern views, the management of rain and snow precipitation, and the summer westerly winds. The interior of the prism is articulated as interconnected cells that afford a complex landscape of social interaction. The process is then reiterated in a fractal fashion to address a multi-generational dwelling program: A conjoined second prism – evolved from the first one, provides a discreet yet connected realm for the young adults occupying the middle level. Below it, the ground floor is given over to the grandparents’ quarters.Save this picture!© Imagen SubliminalSave this picture!Structure DiagramSave this picture!© Imagen SubliminalProject gallerySee allShow lessMoshe Safdie Discusses His Unbuilt Work and Timeless Meaning In ArchitectureArchitecture NewsModular Installation Provides Temporary Housing For Refugees Beneath Paris BridgeArchitecture News Share Save this picture!© Imagen Subliminal+ 46Curated by María Francisca González Share Contractor: Projectslast_img read more

first_imgSamantha Dickson Brain Tumour Trust appoint JGA Tagged with: Consulting & Agencies Individual giving The Samantha Dickson Brain Tumour Trust (SDBTT) has appointed John Grain Associates (JGA) to work with them to develop their fundraising activities for Brain Tumour Awareness Month, which takes place in March 2011.Brain Tumour Awareness Month will see SDBTT further developing their existing Tea Party event, as well as introducing a London to Cambridge bike ride, skydiving, and their first ever national raffle. They will also be testing donor acquisition activity through both raffles and cause related direct marketing.Paul Carbury, CEO of SDBTT said: “Given the ever increasing need for our services and the high quality of the research work we are funding, we feel the time is right to develop and expand our fundraising activities. Brain Tumour Awareness Month provides us with an excellent opportunity to do so and we are enormously excited by the potential of the fundraising work we have planned.“We have chosen JGA to support us because of their proven track record and expertise in working with charities of our size. As well as being very creative, they take a long-term, sustainable, and most importantly, practical approach based on the best principles of relationship fundraising”.JGA are currently working with SDBTT on a longer-term programme of fundraising and communications covering all aspects of their individual giving Howard Lake | 21 November 2010 | News About Howard Lake Howard Lake is a digital fundraising entrepreneur. Publisher of UK Fundraising, the world’s first web resource for professional fundraisers, since 1994. Trainer and consultant in digital fundraising. Founder of Fundraising Camp and co-founder of Researching massive growth in giving. AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis  31 total views,  1 views today AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThislast_img read more

first_imgNI Hospice posts fall in income Tagged with: Finance hospice Northern Ireland Research / statistics Howard Lake | 15 April 2018 | News Advertisement About Howard Lake Howard Lake is a digital fundraising entrepreneur. Publisher of UK Fundraising, the world’s first web resource for professional fundraisers, since 1994. Trainer and consultant in digital fundraising. Founder of Fundraising Camp and co-founder of Researching massive growth in giving.  181 total views,  1 views today AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis6  182 total views,  2 views today AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis6 Voluntary income for one of Northern Ireland’s largest charities fell by over 10% last year compared to the year before, according to the latest accounts.The Northern Ireland Hospice saw its voluntary income, which includes trading, donations and fundraising activities, drop from £7.8 million to just over £7 million between 2016 and 2017. Total funding, which includes statutory funding also fell, from £15 million to £13.8 million. Voluntary income accounts for over 67% of the Hospice’s income.Some of the decline in income can be accounted for by the ending of the capital appeal for a new Hospice building which saw a drop for that project from £1.2 million to just under £500,000 in 2017. Donations and collections did show an increase last year just to over £2 million to £2.2 million.While legacy income reduced from £2.5 million to £2 million some of this can be accounted for by a change in how legacies are reconciled in the accounts.The accounts state that trading operations continued to operate in a ‘challenging environment’ with sales marginally down from £2.2 million to £2.1 million despite opening a new charity shop and café operation. Profits from trading, which form the net contribution to the Hospice income, fell by 43% to just over £300,000.The NI Hospice says donor engagement is a core theme and they are committed to more investment in planned giving and further segmentation of their donor base.Total fundraising costs, including the costs of charitable trading, were just over £3 million last year, an increase of around £100,000 on the year before.last_img read more

first_imgGrand Rapids, Mich. — “It’s not one thing, it is everything,” says the Rev. Edward Pinkney of Berrien County, Mich., who is currently incarcerated for unjust felony forgery charges at the Lakeland Correctional Facility in Coldwater, Mich.Supporters of Rev. Edward Pinkney demonstrate in Grand Rapids, Mich., demanding he be released on bond.WW photo: Abayomi AzikiweSupporters of Pinkney held a demonstration in Grand Rapids, Mich., outside the state appeals court, calling for the civil rights leader to be released on bond pending the outcome of his challenge to a conviction for attempting to recall the Benton Harbor, Mich., mayor. Pinkney, the leader of the Black Autonomy Network Community Organization (BANCO) based in Berrien County, was sentenced to 30 to 120 months in prison after a trial that was observed and followed by thousands throughout the United States and the world.Pinkney’s defense attorney, Tim Holloway, has filed a motion to the Appellate Court to reconsider its two-to-one decision to deny bond. Pinkney poses no threat to the people of Michigan and deserves to be allowed to rejoin his family and friends in Berrien County.Judge Sterling Schrock sentenced Pinkney after admonishing him for his role in Berrien County politics. The BANCO leader was charged and convicted of changing five dates on recall petitions.There were no eyewitnesses to this alleged crime and the charges were politically motivated. Berrien County prosecuting attorney Michael Sepic questioned witnesses on their organizational affiliations and what was said at BANCO meetings. As a result of the conviction and sentencing of Pinkney, a nationwide movement has sprung into existence demanding his release.The demonstration outside the appellate court in Grand Rapids was covered by Channel 8 and WOOD radio, which reaches hundreds of thousands across western Michigan. Protesters traveled to Grand Rapids from Detroit, Ann Arbor, Berrien County and other areas around the state.FacebookTwitterWhatsAppEmailPrintMoreShare thisFacebookTwitterWhatsAppEmailPrintMoreShare thislast_img read more

first_imgFinal battle of the Haitian revolution.July 14 is Bastille Day. On that date in 1789 tens of thousands of poor people in Paris attacked a hated prison called the Bastille and began the French Revolution. The continual intervention of poor people in the cities and countryside — particularly in Paris — drove the revolution forward.Karl Marx and Frederick Engels — the founders of communism — lived in that revolution’s afterglow. Lenin and the other leaders of the Russian Revolution studied the French Revolution. Lenin became chairperson of the Council of People’s Commissars, a term derived from the French “commissaire.”Even the terms “left” and “right” derive from the French upheaval. When the National Assembly met in 1789, the supporters of the king seized the right portion of the chamber and forced revolutionaries to sit on the left. They did this because of an ancient prejudice against left-handed people.The French Revolution started in Europe, but it belongs to the world. And there would have been no French Revolution without Haiti.Capitalist riches from enslaved workersThe French Revolution was a capitalist, or bourgeois, revolution. It swept away all the old feudal rubbish, like the remnants of serfdom, that oppressed people. Even the formation of a national market, a necessity for capitalism, had to be fought for.The capitalist class or bourgeoisie was not a new class. It began its rise centuries earlier in merchant trading. Its earliest attempts to challenge the old feudal order, usually under the guise of religious differences, were thrown back with bloody reprisals.The Bourbon kings and the big nobles of France were aristocratic parasites who feasted while millions lived in rags. They were symbolized by Queen Marie Antoinette, who, when informed that people had no bread, exclaimed, “Let them eat cake!” referring to the burnt remnants of bread caked inside communal ovens.During the 1700s, the Bourbon monarchy was increasingly challenged by the bourgeoisie. Its ideologues, led by Voltaire, questioned everything and led the great intellectual movement known as the Enlightenment. Voltaire campaigned against executing people on “the wheel,” a torture device to which people were tied while their bodies were broken, sometimes just for allegedly mocking a religious procession.But what gave the bourgeoisie its newfound confidence to oppose the monarchy were the profits flowing into its coffers from the labor of people held in slavery.As C.L.R. James pointed out in his classic “The Black Jacobins”: “Nearly all the industries which developed in France during the eighteenth century had their origin in goods or commodities destined either for the coast of Guinea or for America. The capital from the slave-trade fertilized them; though the bourgeoisie traded in other things than slaves, upon the success or failure of the traffic everything else depended.”The livelihood of 2 to 6 million people in France — out of a total population of 25 million — depended on slavery and products grown by enslaved people. French possession of Haiti meant it owned the richest colony in the world. Its trade employed 24,000 French sailors on 750 ships.While Britain had an export trade of 27 million British pounds, the French were close behind with 17 million. The wealth produced by the Haitian people in slavery accounted for nearly 11 million pounds alone.Liberty seized by enslaved peopleThe French bourgeoisie declared “Liberty, Equality, Fraternity” as the watchwords of their revolution. This is still the motto of France today.But most French capitalists never wanted to abolish slavery or to grant liberty to Black people kidnapped from Africa who were worked to death in Haiti, Guadeloupe and Martinique.At that time conditions were such in Haiti that the average life expectancy for a Black person on the island was 21 years. Then, news of the French Revolution reached Haiti and created a political ferment as it became known to people in slavery.Dutty Boukman, an African originally enslaved in Jamaica, started a revolt in August 1791. Over 1,800 plantations were burned. Boukman was eventually killed, bravely fighting. But new leaders like Toussaint Louverture and Jean-Jacques Dessalines arose. The rising of Haiti’s enslaved people could not be stopped, and it found support among the French poor.“The Blacks were taking their part in the destruction of European feudalism begun by the French Revolution,” James wrote, “and liberty and equality, the slogans of the revolution, meant far more to them than to any Frenchman.”‘The aristocracy of the skin’While the French Revolution was a bourgeois revolution, it was poor people in the cities and countryside who fought for it. In Europe, there was as yet no modern working class because there were no big industries. The Industrial Revolution had just started in Britain a few years before with the first cotton spinning machines.Haiti was different. As James pointed out, “Working and living together in gangs of hundreds on the huge sugar-factories which covered the North Plain, they were closer to a modem proletariat [working class] than any group of workers in existence at the time.”The French poor hated aristocrats and royalty like Marie Antoinette. But it was the “aristocracy of the skin,” as it became known, that became the most hated. Poor people in Paris found it detestable that people could be enslaved, branded and sold like cattle just because of their skin color.James wrote, “In these few months of their nearest approach to power [the French poor] did not forget the Blacks. They felt towards them as brothers, and the old slave-owners, whom they knew to be supporters of the counter-revolution, they hated as if Frenchmen themselves had suffered under the whip.“It was not Paris alone but all revolutionary France. ‘Servants, peasants, workers, the laborers by the day in the fields all over France were filled with a virulent hatred against the ‘aristocracy of the skin’ [James was quoting a supporter of slavery]. There were many so moved by the sufferings of the slaves that they had long ceased to drink coffee, thinking of it as drenched with the blood and sweat of men turned into brutes.”As the French Revolution went forward, those bourgeois political leaders who opposed radical measures became known as Girondists. They were named for the region surrounding the French port of Bordeaux. Like Liverpool in England, Bordeaux’s economic life depended on the slave trade.The opponents of the Girondists were known as Jacobins. Most schoolbooks slander Jacobins like Maximilien Robespierre or other radicals like Jean-Paul Marat as bloodthirsty “terrorists.”But most of the Girondist leaders who talked so grandly about liberty didn’t want to abolish slavery. It was only when Robespierre and the radical Jacobins were in power that slavery was formally ended in all French possessions by the decree of Feb. 4, 1794.This was a historic measure by France’s National Convention, but it only confirmed the freedom that had already been seized by the enslaved people themselves.Defending the revolutionsThe French Revolution was opposed by all of feudal Europe and by Britain, its commercial rival. Like the Russian Revolution more than a century later, France was invaded on a dozen fronts. The Duke of Brunswick, commander of the Allied Army (principally Austrian and Prussian), issued a manifesto threatening the destruction of Paris.Although Britain bankrolled some of the armies invading France, its own army was absent. That’s because it was invading Haiti. This move was a disaster for the British ruling class. “By the end of 1796, after three years of war, the British had lost in the West Indies 80,000 soldiers including 40,000 actually dead,” wrote James.If the British army that invaded Haiti had marched on Paris along with other European powers, the French Revolution might have been crushed. By defending their own freedom in a battle with British invaders, the Haitian people also defended the freedom of 25 million people in France.“It was the decree of abolition, the bravery of the Black [people], and the ability of their leaders, that had done it,” wrote James. “The great gesture of the French working people towards the Black slaves, against their own white ruling class, had helped to save their revolution from reactionary Europe. Held by Toussaint and his raw levies, singing the Marseillaise and the Ça ira [two revolutionary songs], Britain, the most powerful country in Europe, could not attack the revolution in France.”In “A History of the British Army,” J.W. Fortescue concluded that people who had been enslaved “had practically destroyed the British Army.” He admitted that “the secret of England’s impotence for the first six years of the war may be said to lie in the two fatal words, St. Domingo [the old name for Haiti].”Two centuries of revengeAfter the French Revolution, the radical Jacobins were overthrown and many were executed. Napoleon Bonaparte eventually seized power and became a military dictator.Napoleon defeated one European feudal army after another. But he couldn’t conquer Haiti. Napoleon sent an army to Haiti commanded by his brother-in-law, Charles Leclerc, and Toussaint Louverture was kidnapped and died in a French prison.But as Leclerc wrote to a French government minister: “It is not enough to have taken away Toussaint, there are 2,000 leaders to be taken away.” Leclerc died in Haiti knowing he was defeated. (Aldon Lynn Nielsen, “C.L.R. James: A Critical Introduction”)Despite massacres that included drowning a thousand Black people at a time, as well as public burnings and hangings, the French army suffered a worse defeat than the British. Out of 34,000 French troops, 24,000 died.Dessalines declared Haiti’s independence on Jan. 1, 1804. But the world capitalist class has never forgiven Haiti for its revolution. U.S. slave masters had nightmares about leaders in the mold of Dessalines, like Nat Turner who led an 1831 uprising of enslaved people in Virginia. Haiti is still deliberately kept the poorest country in this hemisphere by the United States and other capitalist countries.But the Haitian Revolution changed history forever.Tear down the wallsFrench capitalists use Bastille Day to glorify French colonialism. But socialist revolutionaries should celebrate Bastille Day by demanding that the more than 2 million prisoners locked up in U.S. bastilles be freed, starting with Leonard Peltier, Mumia Abu-Jamal, Dr. Aafia Siddiqui and the MOVE 9.Bastille Day should also be celebrated because of the Iraqi Revolution that overthrew the U.S.- and British-backed monarchy on Bastille Day — July 14, 1958. Capitalists never forgave Haiti’s revolution and haven’t forgiven Iraq’s people for taking over their own oil. The Pentagon has invaded Iraq twice and still occupies it.The U.S. capitalist class is as obsolete and useless as the French aristocracy was 228 years ago. Capitalists want to take away health care, privatize Social Security and cut wages even further. A socialist revolution is needed just to stop capitalism from cooking the earth.The multinational working class in the United States will be forced to rise, as the French and Haitian masses did. An absolutely necessary requirement for success is that millions of white workers, part of this multinational class, break with racism. They need to see, and will see, that they are being used as political cattle by the wealthy and powerful, like Donald Trump, who actually despise them.Tear down the Bastilles! Down with the aristocracy of the skin! Reparations for Haiti!Source: C.L.R. James, “The Black Jacobins: Toussaint L’Ouverture and the San Domingo Revolution.”FacebookTwitterWhatsAppEmailPrintMoreShare thisFacebookTwitterWhatsAppEmailPrintMoreShare thislast_img read more

first_img April 27, 2021 Find out more Organisation March 12, 2021 Find out more Receive email alerts News News Follow the news on China Help by sharing this information News Reporters Without Borders condemns the closure of the bimonthly online newspaper China Development Brief ( Nick Young, its founder and editor, announced on 10 October that he will stop publishing because negotiations with police and government officials “brought no useful result.” to go further —————————————–07.12 – Ban on China Development Brief seen as part of growing censorship of socio-economic newsReporters Without Borders has condemned a ban on the online publication China Development Brief and warned diplomats and investors in China of a growing censorship of socio-economic news, preventing any reliable assessment of the real state of the country. The Beijing Statistics Bureau and the Public Security Bureau on 4 July ordered the site’s founder Nick Young to halt publication. The authorities did not order the site’s closure as such, since the server is British, but warned Young that any further publication would be “illegal”.”We tend to believe that official censorship only affects ‘sensitive’ political issues and only targets political activists”, the worldwide press freedom organisation said.”The closure of websites like China Development Brief shows that the spectre of Chinese censorship is much broader and affects news about Chinese society which is not in the interests of the communist party. It should also warn companies working in China about the risks of investing in a country where all social and economic figures are massaged by the government.”How can one invest calmly in this country when there are no independent figures available on, for example, social development or public health policy?” Reporters Without Borders asked.Beijing-based China Development Brief ( exists in both English and Chinese versions. Since it was founded in 1995, it has become a major source of information on the development of China’s civil society. Its twice-monthly newsletter counts the World Bank, UN agencies and many NGOs among its subscribers.The website recently published articles and analyses on sensitive subjects such as the Aids epidemic and rioting in protest against the single child policy. The editorial line of the Chinese version, which was launched in 1999, was however cautious about sensitive issues in China and was not in any way opposed to the government.The journal’s founder and editor voiced surprise at the decision. “I have always taken a positive angle on the situation in China. I hope that these measures are the work of zealous state security agents and that more important figures in the communist party will realise that actions of this kind are not in China’s interests”, he told Agence France Presse.The Statistics Bureau told Nick Young that he had broken the law on statistics by carrying out unauthorised investigations.”None of the China Development Brief reports amounted to real investigations or polls, but the authorities said that this law applies to any kind of investigation, including going to speak to people,” Young added. The Public Security Bureau declined to comment on the case to AFP.In February 2007, Reporters Without Borders condemned the filtering of the website of the International Crisis Observatory (, after it published an article headlined “Shanghai, my love” which informed companies about the risks of commercial relations with China. The organisation commented that already “the filtering of this site shows that censorship of the Chinese Net goes well beyond ‘subversive’ political content”. ( November 6, 2007 – Updated on January 20, 2016 Authorities force editor to close China Development Brief for good News China: Political commentator sentenced to eight months in prison RSF_en ChinaAsia – Pacific June 2, 2021 Find out more Authorities force editor to close China Development Brief for goodReporters Without Borders condemns the closure of the bimonthly online newspaper China Development Brief ( Nick Young, its founder and editor, announced on 10 October that he will stop publishing because negotiations with police and government officials “brought no useful result.”Young was denied entry to the country in September by immigration officials who cited article 12 of the immigration law. This says that foreigners who “might endanger the security of the state or the social order of China” should not be allowed into the country.“The authorities could not order the closure of this newsletter as it is hosted on a server in the UK, so they prevented its editor from working in China,” Reporters Without Borders said. “By means of unproductive negotiations, the government has forced Young to abandon a 12-year-old publication.”The Beijing public security bureau and the Beijing statistical bureau ordered Young to cease all publication in China on 4 July on the grounds that he had violated the Statistics Law by conducting “unauthorised surveys” on sensitive subjects (such as the HIV/AIDS epidemic and rioting against the single child policy. Democracies need “reciprocity mechanism” to combat propaganda by authoritarian regimes China’s Cyber ​​Censorship Figures ChinaAsia – Pacific last_img read more